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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-December 2019
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-7

Online since Friday, May 24, 2019

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CASE REPORT  

A child with partial trisomy 4 (q26 – qterminal) resulting from paternally inherited translocation (4:18) associated with multiple congenital anomalies and death Highly accessed article p. 1
Abhik Chakraborty, Santosh Kumar Panda, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Debarshi Roy, Swatishree Padhi, Shu Wen Koh, Manoor Prakash Hande, Birendranath Banerjee
DOI:10.4103/genint.genint_4_18  PMID:31160964
Parental balanced reciprocal translocations can result in partial aneuploidy in the offspring due to unbalanced meiotic segregation during gametogenesis. Herein, we report the phenotypic and cytogenetic characterization in a 9-day-old male child with partial trisomy of chromosome 4. Karyotyping of the proband and parents was performed along with multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) of paternal chromosomes. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping showed 47,XY,der(18),t(4;18)(q26;q22),+4 in proband, and the paternal karyotype was found as 47,XY,der(18),t(4;18)(q26;q22). mFISH analysis on paternal chromosomal preparations confirmed both region and origin of the balanced translocation. In this study, karyotyping helped us to identify both numerical and structural anomalies in the proband, and mFISH helped us to confirm our cytogenetic findings. Therefore, cytogenetic screening of both partners is recommended before pregnancy to rule out or confirm the presence of any numerical or structural anomaly in one, both, or none of the partners.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Radiation-induced Chromosome Instability: The role of dose and dose rate p. 1
Eman Mohammed Elbakrawy, Mark A Hill, Munira A Kadhim
DOI:10.4103/genint.genint_5_19  
Nontargeted effects include radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI) which is observed in the progeny of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and can be manifested in different ways, including chromosomal instability and micronucleus (MN) formation. Since genomic instability is commonly observed in tumors and has a role in tumor progression, RIGI has the potential of being an important mechanism for radiation-induced cancer. The work presented explores the role of dose and dose rate on RIGI, determined using a MN assay, in normal primary human fibroblast (HF19) cells exposed to either 0.1 Gy or 1 Gy of X-rays delivered either as an acute (0.42 Gy/min) or protracted (0.0031 Gy/min) exposure. While the expected increase in MN was observed following the first mitosis of the irradiated cells compared to unirradiated controls, the results also demonstrate a significant increase in MN yields in the progeny of these cells at 10 and 20 population doublings following irradiation. Minimal difference was observed between the two doses used (0.1 and 1 Gy) and the dose rates (acute and protracted). Therefore, these nontargeted effects have the potential to be important for the low-dose and dose-rate exposure. The results also show an enhancement of the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species after 20 population doublings, which suggests that ionising radiation (IR) could potentially perturb the homeostasis of oxidative stress and so modify the background rate of endogenous DNA damage induction. In conclusion, the investigations have demonstrated that normal primary human fibroblast (HF19) cells are susceptible to the induction of early DNA damage and RIGI, not only after a high dose and high dose rate exposure to low linear energy transfer, but also following low dose, low dose rate exposures. The results suggest that the mechanism of radiation induced RIGI in HF19 cells can be correlated with the induction of reactive oxygen species levels following exposure to 0.1 and 1 Gy low-dose rate and high-dose rate x-ray irradiation.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Development of dose-response calibration curve for dicentric chromosome induced by X-rays p. 2
Yanti Lusiyanti, Mukh Syaifudin, Tuti Budiantari, Sofiati Purnami, Dwi Ramadhani
DOI:10.4103/genint.genint_1_19  PMID:31391915
Chromosome aberration is a biomarker that has been used as a standard tool in biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) of individuals after exposure to ionizing radiation. It is based mainly on the induction of dicentric chromosomes – one of the radiation-induced biological effects, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. In this study, a dose calibration curve for X-rays was generated by using the dicentric assay and by fitting the data to both Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software and Dose Estimate programs to compare the output of each method. Peripheral blood samples from four nonsmoker healthy donors were irradiated with various doses ranging from 0 to 4 Gy with 250 kV or 122 keV X-rays at a dose rate of 0.17 Gy/min. The irradiated blood was cultured, harvested, and analyzed according to the standard procedure as described by the International Atomic Energy Agency with slight modifications. The dose-response calibration data for dicentrics were fitted with the linear-quadratic model (Ydic = 0.03987D2 + 0.00651D). The dose-response calibration curve obtained in this research was comparable to other estimations with similar radiation quality and dose rates. The results in this research convinced us in sustaining a biodosimetry using a dose-response calibration curve in our laboratory.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Radiation-induced Chromosome Instability: The role of dose and dose rate p. 3
Eman Mohammed Elbakrawy, Mark A Hill, Munira A Kadhim
DOI:10.4103/genint.genint_5_19  
Nontargeted effects include radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI) which is observed in the progeny of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and can be manifested in different ways, including chromosomal instability and micronucleus (MN) formation. Since genomic instability is commonly observed in tumors and has a role in tumor progression, RIGI has the potential of being an important mechanism for radiation-induced cancer. The work presented explores the role of dose and dose rate on RIGI, determined using a MN assay, in normal primary human fibroblast (HF19) cells exposed to either 0.1 Gy or 1 Gy of X-rays delivered either as an acute (0.42 Gy/min) or protracted (0.0031 Gy/min) exposure. While the expected increase in MN was observed following the first mitosis of the irradiated cells compared to unirradiated controls, the results also demonstrate a significant increase in MN yields in the progeny of these cells at 10 and 20 population doublings following irradiation. Minimal difference was observed between the two doses used (0.1 and 1 Gy) and the dose rates (acute and protracted). Therefore, these nontargeted effects have the potential to be important for the low-dose and dose-rate exposure. The results also show an enhancement of the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species after 20 population doublings, which suggests that ionising radiation (IR) could potentially perturb the homeostasis of oxidative stress and so modify the background rate of endogenous DNA damage induction. In conclusion, the investigations have demonstrated that normal primary human fibroblast (HF19) cells are susceptible to the induction of early DNA damage and RIGI, not only after a high dose and high dose rate exposure to low linear energy transfer, but also following low dose, low dose rate exposures. The results suggest that the mechanism of radiation induced RIGI in HF19 cells can be correlated with the induction of reactive oxygen species levels following exposure to 0.1 and 1 Gy low-dose rate and high-dose rate x-ray irradiation.
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