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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| January-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 30, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Strong correlation among three biodosimetry techniques following exposures to ionizing radiation
Chang-Mo Kang, Hyun Jin Yun, Hanna Kim, Cha Soon Kim
January-December 2016, 7(1):11-11
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197168  PMID:28217287
Three in vitro dose calibration curves for biodosimetry such as dicentric chromosome assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for translocation, and micronuclei (MNs) in binucleated cell assay were established after exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples obtained from healthy donors were irradiated with 60Co source at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min to doses of 0.1–6 Gy. The results from three in vitro dose calibration curves for biodosimetry were analyzed to understand the relationship among biodosimetry assay techniques. Our comparison demonstrates that there is a very strong positive correlation among the dicentric assay, FISH, and MNs analysis, and these three biodosimetry assays strongly support the in vitro dose reconstruction and the emergency preparedness of public or occupational radiation overexposure.
  2 1,306 164
EDITORIAL
Strengthening biological dosimetry in member states of the international atomic energy agency
Prakash Hande, Rajesh Sharan, Oleg Belyakov
January-December 2016, 7(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197170  PMID:28217277
  1 1,468 210
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study on γH2AX expression of lymphocytes as a biomarker in radiation biodosimetry
Yan Pan, Gang Gao, Jian Lei Ruan, Jian Xiang Liu
January-December 2016, 7(1):10-10
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197167  PMID:28217286
Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the changes of γH2AX protein expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the dose-effect study, the expression of γH2AX was detected 1 h after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy. Blood was cultivated for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after 4 Gy 60Co γ-rays irradiation for the time-effect study. At the same time, the blood was divided into four treatment groups (ultraviolet [UV] irradiation, 60Co γ-rays irradiation, UV plus 60Co γ-rays irradiation, and control group) to detect the changes of protein expression of γH2AX. The results showed that the γH2AX protein expression was in dose-effect and time-effect relationship with 60Co γ-rays. The peak expression of γH2AX was at 1 h after 60Co γ-ray irradiation and began to decrease quickly. Compared to irradiation with 60Co γ-rays alone, the expression of γH2AX was not significantly changed after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays plus UV. Dose rate did not significantly change the expression of γH2AX. The expression of γH2AX induced by 60Co γ-rays was basically consistent with the mice in vivo and in vitro. The results revealed that the detection of γH2AX protein expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte by flow cytometry analysis is reasonable and may be useful for biodosimetry.
  1 1,332 180
Biodosimetry of persons chronically exposed to low and therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation
Alla Zedginidze, Ema Namchevadze, George Ormocadze, Archil Kapanadze, Tamara Nikuradze, Darejan Lomidze
January-December 2016, 7(1):12-12
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197169  PMID:28217288
Dynamic changes of the chromosomal aberrations and the DNA damage were analyzed in individuals exposed to low and therapeutic doses of radiation. The investigation included 37 persons living in areas where the radioactive sources were discovered 10–12 years ago. It was established by biodosimetry methods that the examined persons had absorbed dose of 0.2–0.7 Gy or had increased number of chromosomal aberrations, though insufficient to determine a dose. Clinical examination, chromosomal analysis, and assay of DNA damage by the comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay were carried out. There was no correlation between the doses received 10 years ago and the cytogenetic changes with clinical outcome. The effect of the local fractionated gamma-irradiation with doses of 40–70 Gy was studied in cancer patients with localized head and neck tumors. The study of chromosomal abnormalities, the DNA damages by the comet assay, and the micronuclei detection of the buccal cells revealed a statistically significant correlation between the initial cytogenetic indices in cancer patients and their dynamic changes during and after the radiation exposure. In addition, the correlation was detected between the initial cytogenetic parameters and the functional stage of red blood system. Our results allow us to conclude that there is a need for further research to estimate the individual radiation risk to optimize and individualize the subsequent medical management of radiotherapy.
  1 1,305 140
Chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after exposure to ionizing radiation
Tae Ho Ryu, Jin-Hong Kim, Jin Kyu Kim
January-December 2016, 7(1):5-5
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197172  PMID:28217281
Biological dosimetry using chromosome aberration analyses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes is suitable and useful tool for estimating the dose when a nuclear or radiological emergency is investigated. Blood samples from five healthy donors were obtained to establish dose-response calibration curves for chromosomal aberrations after exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, dicentric assay and CBMN assay were compared considering the sensitivity and accuracy of dose estimation. In a total of 21,688 analyzed metaphase spreads, 10,969 dicentric chromosomes, 563 centric rings and 11,364 acentric chromosomes were found. The number of metaphase cells decreased with increasing radiation dose. The centric rings were not found in the non-irradiated control. There was no relationship between radiation dose and acentric ring induction. The frequency of total MN increased in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison with the control value, MN increased about 9, 32, 75, 87, and 52 fold higher after treatment with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy, respectively. The results revealed that the mean frequency of chromosomal aberrations, both in dicentric and in micronuclei analyses increased with increasing radiation dose.
  1 1,223 176
Intercomparison in cytogenetic dosimetry among 22 laboratories in China
Jian Xiang Liu, Yan Pan, Jian Lei Ruan, Chunnan Piao, Xu Su
January-December 2016, 7(1):6-6
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197164  PMID:28217282
As part of a regional International Atomic Energy Agency-coordinated research project with the support from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, 22 laboratories participated in the intercomparison in cytogenetic dosimetry in China. Slides for chromosomal aberrations were prepared by the Department of Radiation Epidemiology, National Institute for Radiological Protection, which organized the exercise. Slides were sent to the other participating laboratories through Express Mail Service. For estimates of dose, each laboratory scored the frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings chromosomes. The whole blood samples were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays (1.3 Gy, 2.4 Gy and 1.5 Gy, 2.6 Gy). Each laboratory got one group of the slides. Ten of the 44 estimates of dose fell within ±5% of the true physical dose, 12 fell within ±5–10%, 9 fell within ±10–15%, 12 fell within ±15–20%, while only one sample fell ± >20%. The evaluation of the respective dose was achieved by 21 laboratories.
  1 1,392 155
Establishment of a dose-response curve for X-ray-induced micronuclei in human lymphocytes
Yanti Lusiyanti, Zubaidah Alatas, Mukh Syaifudin, Sofiati Purnami
January-December 2016, 7(1):7-7
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197162  PMID:28217283
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is an established technique for biodosimetry. The aim of this project was to generate a X-ray induced micronuclei (MN) curve for peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from five healthy donors. The blood samples were irradiated with X-rays of 122 KeV at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy. The blood samples were then cultured for 72 h at 37°C and processed following the International Atomic Energy Agency standard procedure with slight modifications. The result showed that the yields of MN frequencies were increased with the increase of radiation dose. Reconstruction of the relationship of MN with dose was fitted to a linear-quadratic model using Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software version 2.0. Due to their advantages, mainly, the dependence on radiation dose and dose rate, despite their limitation, these curves will be useful as alternative method for in vitro dose reconstruction and can support the preparedness for public or occupational radiation overexposure and protection. The results reported here also give us confidence to apply the obtained calibration curve of MN for future biological dosimetry requirements in Indonesia.
  1 1,377 157
Establishment of dose-response curves for dicentrics and premature chromosome condensation for radiological emergency preparedness in Thailand
Benchawan Rungsimaphorn, Budsaba Rerkamnuaychoke, Wanwisa Sudprasert
January-December 2016, 7(1):8-8
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197165  PMID:28217284
The in vitro dose calibration curves using conventional biological dosimetry – dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay – were performed for the first time in Thailand for reconstruction of radiation dose in the exposed individuals. The peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from healthy donors were irradiated with 137Cs source at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy for DCA technique, and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy for PCC technique. The blood samples were cultured and processed following the standard procedure as prescribed in the International Atomic Energy Agency report with slight modifications. The yield of dicentrics with dose from at least 1000 metaphases or 100 dicentrics was fitted to a linear quadratic model using Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software (CABAS, version 2.0) whereas those of PCC rings with dose from 100 rings was fitted to a linear quadratic equation at doses from 0 to 15 Gy. These curves will be useful for in vitro dose reconstruction and can support the preparedness for overexposure to radiation among public or occupational workers and eventual radiological accident in Thailand.
  - 1,258 131
Construction of calibration curve for premature chromosome condensation assay for dose assessment
Elizaveta G Neronova
January-December 2016, 7(1):9-9
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197166  PMID:28217285
Cytogenetic dosimetry plays an important role in the triage and medical management of affected people in radiological incidents/accidents. Cytogenetic biodosimetry uses different methods to estimate the absorbed dose in the exposed individuals, and each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay presents several advantages that hopefully fulfill the gaps identified in the other cytogenetic methods. To introduce this technique into the panel of other cytogenetic methods, a calibration curve for PCC after γ-irradiation was generated for our laboratory.
  - 1,329 116
Calibration curve for dicentric chromosomes induced in human blood lymphocytes exposed to gamma rays at a dose rate of 12.5 mgy/s
Tran Que, Pham Ngoc Duy, Bui Thi Kim Luyen
January-December 2016, 7(1):2-2
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197171  PMID:28217278
To develop a calibration curve for induction of dicentric chromosomes by radiation, we have used a 60Co gamma-ray source with dose rate of 12.5 mGy/s. Whole blood from 15 healthy donors was collected. Whole blood from each donor was divided equally into 8 parts for exposing to supposedly physical doses 0, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 Gy for a independent calibration curve. Whole blood from 15 donors was used to calibrate dose – effect and statistical for general calibration curve. Using Poisson test (U-test) for the distribution of dicentric chromosomes in the metaphases to determine the uniformity of the radiation field. The average from 15 independent calibration curves of linear correlated coefficient was determined to be r (y, d) = 0.5136 ± 0.0038. The model equation derived is y = aD + bD2 + C. The calibration equation of dose-effect was y = 1.01D + 4.43D2 + 0.56.
  - 2,135 185
Towards establishing capacity for biological dosimetry at ghana atomic energy commission
Daniel Gyingiri Achel, Elom Achoribo, Sandra Agbenyegah, Rudolph M Adaboro, Shadrack Donkor, Nana A K Adu-Bobi, Akwasi A Agyekum, Felicia Akuamoa, Samuel N Tagoe, Kofi A Kyei, Joel Yarney, Antonio Serafin, John M Akudugu
January-December 2016, 7(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197173  PMID:28217279
The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0–6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48–50 h. Processed cells were analyzed for the frequencies of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes. Radiation dose delivered to the experimental model was verified using GafChromic® EBT films in parallel experiments. Basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry in the GAEC have been realized and expertise in the dicentric chromosome assay consolidated. We successfully obtained preliminary cytogenetic data for a dose-response relationship of the irradiated blood lymphocytes. The data strongly indicate the existence of significant linear (α) and quadratic (β) components and are consistent with those published for the production of chromosome aberrations in comparable absorbed dose ranges.
  - 1,391 155
Enhancing cytogenetic biological dosimetry capabilities of the philippines for nuclear incident preparedness
Celia O Asaad, Gloriamaris L Caraos, Gerardo Jose M Robles, Anie Day D. C. Asa, Maria Lucia C Cobar, Al-Ahmadgaid Asaad
January-December 2016, 7(1):4-4
DOI:10.4103/2041-9414.197163  PMID:28217280
The utility of a biological dosimeter based on the analysis of dicentrics is invaluable in the event of a radiological emergency wherein the estimated absorbed dose of an exposed individual is crucial in the proper medical management of patients. The technique is also used for routine monitoring of occupationally exposed workers to determine radiation exposure. An in vitro irradiation study of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted to establish a dose-response curve for radiation-induced dicentric aberrations. Blood samples were collected from volunteer donors and together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and were irradiated at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy using a cobalt-60 radiotherapy unit. Blood samples were cultured for 48 h, and the metaphase chromosomes were prepared following the procedure of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Emergency Preparedness and Response – Biodosimetry 2011 manual. At least 100 metaphases were scored for dicentric aberrations at each dose point. The data were analyzed using R language program. The results indicated that the distribution of dicentric cells followed a Poisson distribution and the dose-response curve was established using the estimated model, Ydic = 0.0003 (±0.0003) +0.0336 (±0.0115) × D + 0.0236 (±0.0054) × D2. In this study, the reliability of the dose-response curve in estimating the absorbed dose was also validated for 2 and 4 Gy using OSL dosimeters. The data were fitted into the constructed curve. The result of the validation study showed that the obtained estimate for the absorbed exposure doses was close to the true exposure doses.
  - 1,313 168